CLIMATE AND SOIL

Seasons

It can be grown in plains throughout the year but rabi season is the best

  • Rainy Season - June – July
  • Winter Season - October – November
  • Summer Season - February – March

    Soils

    A well drained soil with medium to high fertility is best suited.

    VAREITIES

    Bhagyamati

    It was released by ANGRAU. It is freely branching, erect type compact in habit. The emerging leaves are Purple in color, with slightly purple stem. Fairly resistant to fruit borer and little leaf virus. Fruits are borne in clusters of 3-6, deep purple with oblong shape and without spines. It comes to harvest in about 45-50 days after planting. Duration of the crop is 140-160 days. This variety withstands better for drought. Also performs better in upland rainfed cultivation. Yields range from 30-35 tons/ha.

    Pusa Purple Cluster

    Crop comes to harvest in 66-75 days, tall, erect, compact habit. Leaves and stem are purple. Fruits borne in clusters of 3-6 fruits deep purple oval shape, 10-12 cm long. Heavy yielder 30-40 tons/ha. Resistant to bacterial wilt. Duration is 135-140 days.

    Pusa Purple Long

    It is an early variety. Comes to harvest in about 45 days after planting. Semi erect habit, medium height, leaves and stem are green in colour, spines are absent. The leaves are with cut edges. Fruits long, purple, glossy, 25-30 cm long.

    Pusa Purple Round

    Tall, erect and sturdy in habit. Leaves and stems are dark green colour and without spines. Leaves are with entire margin. Fruits round weighing 130-150gm purple glossy, smooth and large. Resistant to little leaf disease, 135-150 days duration, yields moderate i.e. 20-25 tons/ha.

    Pusa Kranti

    Tall, vigorous and study in habit, leaves and stem are mild green. Spines are absent. Fruits oblong purple with shining gloomy appearance with attractive green calyx. Fruits are borne in singles, medium to large in size heavy yielder 35-40 tons/ha. Duration is 135-150 days.

    Arka Sheel

    The fruits are medium long tender and possess an attractive deep purple skin colour. The fruit contains more edible flesh and less number of seeds. It is a very high yielding and produces on an average 394 q/ha in 110 to 120 days after transplanting.

    Arka Kusumakar

    The fruits are small finger shapped and light green in color. The fruits are borne in clusters of 5-7. It is a very high yielding and dwarf plant bears about 70-75 fruits per plant with an average yield of 397 q/ha in about 110 to 120 days after transplanting.

    Arka Navneeth

    A F1 hybrid Large oval fruits with deep purple shining skin. Calyx green, thick and fleshy. Average fruit weight 450 g. Free from bitter principal with very good cooking qualities. Yield 65-70 t/ha

    CULTURAL PRACTICES

    Seeds and Sowing

    650 gm seed grown in a nursery of 25-30 beds of the size 1x4 m would be adequate to transplant one hectare. The seedlings with 3-4 leaves with are approximately 30-35 days old should be transplanted with a spacing of 50x50cm. or 75x50 cm.

    Manures and Fertilizers

    A basal dressing of 50kg of P2O5 and 50kg K2O are to be applied/ha in the last ploughing. Application of Farm Yard Manure upto 25 tons/ha is desirable. 100kg of Nitrogen per hectare is to be applied in three split doses at 30th, 60th and 75th day after planting.

    Interculture

    Weeding, Hoeing and earthing up is to be done along with fertilization.

    Irrigation

    The crop requires adequate moisture during the first 70 days. It can withstand drought later to some extent and still revive upon the soil moisture. In summer interval of 4-5 days and in winter 7-10 days.

    Harvesting

    The harvesting starts from 50th day onwards and continues for 50 days in the first phase and a second phase con be obtained after 20-25 days if adequate nutrition and irrigation are provided. The crop can be removed after 110 days if the 2nd flush is not desired, otherwise it can be retained for 150-160 days.

    The size of the fruit reduces during the summer. The calyx is purple blue and is soft and edible too. During summer the calyx tends to become green.

    PESTS

    Epilachna beetle/Hadda beetle

    The grubs and adults scrape the chlorophyll from the epidermal layers of the leaves. The feeding results in a typical ladder-like window. The windows will dry and drop off, leaving holes in the leaves. In severe infestations, several windows coalesce together and lead to skeletonization and formation of a papery structure on the leaf.

    Control:

    Spray of Malathion @ 3 ml or Thiodicarb @ 1 g or Profenophos @ 2.0 ml per lit of water.

    Shoot and fruit borer

    Larva starts boring near the growing point or into the flower buds or fruits. During the early vegetative phase of the crop growth, it feeds on the tender shoots. The larva tunnels inside the shoot and feeds on the inner contents. It fills the feeding tunnels with excreta. This results in wilting of young shoots, followed by drying and drop off, which slows plant growth. In addition, it produces new shoots, delaying crop maturity. Under heavy infestation, more than one larva will feed inside the same fruit.

    Control :

    Remove affected shoots and fruits and burn them. Use FSB pheromone traps for monitoring the pest. Spraying Emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 80 g in 200 l of water/acre or thiodicarb 75% WP @ 250-400 g in 200 l of water/acre or chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 80 ml in 200-300 l of water/acre or cypermethrin 3% + quinalphos 20% EC @ 140-160 ml in 200-240 l of water/acre.

    White flies

    Both the adults and nymphs suck the plant sap and reduce the vigor of the plant. In severe infestations, the leaves turn yellow and drop off. When the populations are high they secrete large quantities of honeydew, which favors the growth of sooty mould on leaf surfaces and reduces the photosynthetic efficiency of the plants.

    Leaf hoppers

    Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the lower leaf surfaces through their piercing and sucking mouthparts. While sucking the plant sap, they also inject toxic saliva into the plant tissues, which leads to yellowing. When several insects suck the sap from the same leaf, yellow spots appear on the leaves, followed by crinkling, curling, bronzing, and drying, or hopper burn.

    Aphids

    Nymphs and adults suck the sap from the leaves and the affected plants turn yellow, get deformed and dry away. Aphids also secrete honeydew on which sooty mould grows, which hampers the photosynthetic activity.

    Control :

    Spraying of systemic insecticides like

    Spider mite

    Spider mites sock the sap from leaves resulting in reduced chlorophyll content in the leaves, leading to the formation of white or yellow speckles on the leaves. In severe infestations, leaves will completely desiccate and drop off. The mites also produce webbing on the leaf surfaces in severe conditions.

    Spray Wettable Sulphur @ 3 to 5 g/lit or Dicofol @ 5 ml/lit or Propergite @ 1 ml/lit of water.

    Root-knot nematode

    The most characteristic symptom is the formation of knots or galls on the root system. Plants show stunted growth. Affected fields have patchy growth with poorly grown, stunted plants.

    Control :

    Application of Carbofuran 3G granules

    DISEASES

    Early blight and fruit rot

    On leaves, disease appears as circular brown spots. Pale, sunken spots develop on the fruit later, which enlarge and cover the entire fruit surface and the internal portion of the fruit rots.

    Control :

    Spray with Bordeaux mixture @ 1.0 % or Zineb 0.25% or Carbndezin + Mancozeb formulation @ 2 g/litre of water.

    Bacterial wilt

    Sudden wilting and death of infected plants occurs. The petioles of older leaves droop down and the leaves show epinasty symptoms accompanied by yellowing and stunting of whole plant. Typical browning of vascular tissues of roots and stems can be seen. From cross sections of infected plants whitish bacterial ooze comes out. High soil moisture and moderate soil temperature favour the disease.

    Sclerotinia blight:

    Downwards wilting of twigs occurs from top towards main stem. Fungal growth occurs near joints in severe cases. Finally whole plant wilts.

    Control:

    Soil solarisation and use resistant/tolerant varieties. Application of Psuedomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma formulations along with organic manures during field preparation will reduce the incidence.

    Little leaf

    Affected plants have narrow, soft, smooth and yellow shorter leaves. Internodes of the stem are also shortened. Axillary buds get enlarged but their petioles and leaves also remain shortened giving the plant a bushy appearance. There will be no or little flowering. Fruiting is rare, if fruits are formed, they become hard, tough and fails to mature. Young fruit turns necrotic, get mummified and cling to the plant. Little leaf disease caused by phytoplasma, and transmitted by Hishimonus phycitis.

    Control :

    Rouge out diseased plants. Spray systemic insecticides to control the vector.

    Mosaic Virus

    Mosaic like symptoms appear on young leaves resulting in stunted growth and reduced flowering. Rouge out diseased plants and spray systemic insecticides to control the vector.

    INTEGRATED PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT

    • Always prepare raised nursery beds about 10 cm above ground level for good drainage grow nursery in portrays to avoid damping off etc.
    • Cover the nursery beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks during June for soil solarisation which will help in reducing the soil borne insects, diseases like bacterial wilt and nematodes. However, care should be taken that sufficient moisture is present in the soil for its solarisation.
    • Mix 1 kg of fungal antagonist Trichoderma viride in 90 kg of FYM + 10 kg neem cake and leave for about seven days for enrichment of culture. After 7 days mix in the soil.
    • Before sowing, seed be treated with T. viride @ 4 gm/ kg. Weeding should be done from time to time and infected seedlings should be rogued out from the nursery.
    • Bird perches @ 10/ acre should be erected for facilitating field visits of predatory birds.
    • Yellow sticky traps @ 6-8 per acre should be installed for hoppers, aphids and white fly etc.
    • Give 2 to 3 sprays of 5 % NSKE against sucking pests. Sprays of NSKE also bring down the borer incidence significantly. Neem oil 10000 ppm @ 3 gm per litre application is also helpful in reducing borer infestation, though marginally.
    • If incidence of leaf hopper and other sucking insect pests is still above ETL, then apply imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 150 ml/ha.
    • Pheromone traps @ 5/ acre should be installed for monitoring and mass trapping of shoot & fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis. Replace the lures with fresh lures after every 15-20 day interval.
    • Release egg parasitoid T. brasiliensis @ 1 – 1.5 lakh/ ha for shoot & fruit borer, 4-5 times at weekly interval.
    • Apply neem cake @ 250 kg/ ha (in two splits) in soil along the plant rows at 25 and 60 DAT for reducing nematodes and borer damage.
    • Clipping of borer damaged shoots and collection & destruction of damaged fruits i.e. clean cultivation helps in management of borer and phomosis disease effectively.
    • If the borer incidence crosses ETL (5% infestation), apply recommended pesticides judiciously.
    • Continuous cropping of brinjal leads to more borer and wilt infestation. Therefore, crop rotation with non-solanaceous crops should be followed.
    • Periodically collect and destroy the egg masses, larvae and adults of hadda beetle.
    • Rogue out the little leaf affected plants from time to time.
    • Use of green manure, mulching with polythene, soil application with bleaching powder will reduce the infection of bacterial wilt disease.
    • Avoid excessive watering and poorly drained areas in field.